In that year, China lost its largest island and was permanently ceded away

2022-06-01 0 By

Sakhalin island remained the largest island in China until the end of the Qing Dynasty.More than 160 years ago a humiliating treaty, let it permanently from the embrace of the motherland was ceded out.1, everything starts from 1860, please remember today: 1860, the year of gengshenin the Chinese lunar calendar, we ceded the Kowloon Peninsula, but also permanently lost Sakhalin Island, Vladivostok…This year, the British and French allied forces approached Tianjin, Emperor Xianfeng hurriedly fled to Rehe.Under the threat of foreign guns and artillery, the Qing dynasty was forced to sign the humiliating Treaty of Beijing with Britain and France, and the Kowloon Peninsula was ceded to Britain in that year.This invasion was caused by the request of the Two countries to exchange the Treaty of Tianjin in Beijing. The Qing dynasty only agreed to exchange the treaty in Shanghai and did not allow the two countries to enter Beijing.In that case, call it in!Britain and France formed the allied forces to kill and rush to come, and finally not only completed the treaty, but also signed the Treaty of Beijing with the Qing Dynasty.The British and French have achieved what they wanted. Should everything be all right?Wrong!The Russians jumped in and, claiming credit for mediating the war, forced the Qing government to sign a Treaty of Beijing.In this unequal treaty, there was a — east of the Ussuri River to the sea, about 400,000 square kilometers of land ceded to Russia, including Sakhalin Island, Vladivostok.Sakhalin, once China’s largest island, fell to Tsarist Russia.2. Sakhalin Island has been named and administered by China since at least the Han Dynasty. China has written records on sakhalin Island.The Name “Sakhalin Island” was officially recognized by the Black Water Mohe in the Tang Dynasty.The Blackwater Mohe, a direct ancestor of the Manchu ethnic group who lives along the “Heishui” (Heilongjiang), is a balhae. When the Tang Dynasty and Silla combined to eliminate Goguryeo, the Heishui Governor’s Residence was established and the Tang Dynasty began to extend its reach to Sakhalin Island.At that time, the Fayacan people living on Sakhalin Island is called “Sakhalin” by the Blackwater Mohe. Therefore, the Tang Dynasty official called the island “Sakhalin Island” by referring to this address to the islanders.After the Song, Yuan and Ming dynasties in most of the time, followed this name, but also briefly called “Guwei Island”, “Guwu Island”.After the founding of the Qing Dynasty, the name “Sakhalin Island” was restored, continuing the tradition of our ancestors.At the same time, different from the previous dynasties, the Qing Dynasty began to effectively manage Sakhalin Island because some land on sakhalin extended to the “Land of Dragon Prosperity” of the Qing Dynasty.To this end, the Fayakis and Tunguskas on Sakhalin Island were semi-militarized. Although they were not included in the Eight banners of Manchuria, they were incorporated into households, with a chief for every 100 households and a township head for every 1,000 households, so as to check the population.Wartime, can be organized by household personnel to participate in the war, at ordinary times with mink as tribute fu on time handed over, the Qing government gives reward……Sakhalin island and its islanders thus maintained a stable tributary relationship with the Qing Dynasty.3. The crisis began with Cossack expeditions in the mid-17th century, when the peace of Sakhalin was shattered.With the signing of the Unjust Sino-Russian Aigun Treaty, a large area of land north of Heilongjiang, south of outer Khingan Mountains and east of Wusuli River was separated and occupied.Khabarov, the notorious Tsarist Cossack leader, led so-called expeditions that began to invade the “land of dragons” of the Qing Dynasty.The Qing government was forced to set up jilin generals and Heilongjiang generals to control the relevant areas.Sakhalin island was placed under the jurisdiction of General Jilin.But this control is bound to be feeble!This is because the so-called boundary demarcated by the Qing Dynasty was inspected only once a year or even several years due to inconvenient transportation, and the damaged or even demolished boundary tablets were also ignored.Early landings on Sakhalin, led by Khabarov’s so-called expedition, were marked by violent clashes with the Islanders, the Fiyakis.Later, Khabarov changed his strategy, instead of just using brute force, “Roshal (Russia) conciliatory, with property deals” as bait.In addition, the Qing government had never stationed officials and troops on the island, and knew nothing about Khabarov’s conciliatory strategy.Sakhalin was ceded after the Signing of the Treaty of Peking, but the Fayakis, unaware of this, maintained a tributary relationship with the Qing Dynasty.Every year, chieftains and others crossed the sea to sanxing City (today’s Yilan County, Heilongjiang Province, “Yilan” was pronounced “SAN” in The Manchu language) to present the furs of yellow foxes, otters and white minks to the Qing Dynasty.According to existing data, the Tribute of The Fayakis to the Qing Dynasty lasted until 1873, that is, 13 years after the seizure of Sakhalin Island, the Fayakis did not recognize the occupation of Tsarist Russia, and still paid tribute to the Qing Dynasty.Sakhalin, once the largest island in China, became part of Tsarist Russia through the Treaty of Beijing, but that changed in just 45 years.In February 1904, the Russo-Japanese War broke out when Japan launched an undeclared attack on the Russian fleet at Lushun, China.In the face of wars in two other countries on Chinese territory, the Qing dynasty declared neutrality.After several decisive battles at Dalian, Lvshun and Mukden (now Shenyang), Japan defeated the main fleet of Tsushima Strait, and there was no possibility for tsushima to win.In August 1905, Japan and Russia signed the Treaty of Portsmouth under the mediation of the United States.Sakhalin island was divided in two, with the south going to Japan and the north still belonging to Tsarist Russia.Thus, Sakhalin Island became a battlefield for Japan and Russia to wrestle and fight for the northeast frontier of China, and Tsarist Russia was always bitter about Japan’s occupation.At the end of World War II, the Soviet Union invaded northeast China, defeated the Japanese Kwantung Army, and recaptured the southern sakhalin island.Subsequently, Sakhalin became A Russian territory through the Russification of the Fiyakis and a large number of immigrants to the island.However, Japan did not give up Sakhalin island, often citing the Treaty of Portsmouth, Sakhalin island has become the focus of the modern territorial dispute between Japan and Russia.There have been various opinions on the sovereignty of Sakhalin island between the two peoples.And the person most qualified to speak has remained silent.Who is it?I don’t have to tell you that.References: “Outline of Modern and Contemporary History”, “Modern and Contemporary History of China”, “Late Qing Dynasty and the Opium War”, “The Fall and destruction of empire”, those who are interested can read in detail