What does 4 trillion degrees Celsius mean?Your understanding of temperature and heat may be a little off

2022-06-05 0 By

In human skin, mucous membrane and viscera, there are a large number of temperature receptors. These temperature receptors are subdivided into temperature receptors and cold receptors. There are a large number of free nerve endings in these receptors.Therefore, when we touch an object, the temperature generated by the object will be directly transmitted to our brain through these receptors, so as to produce intuitive “cold” and “hot” perception of the temperature of the object.So for the human body, we can accept the intuitive temperature cognition actually has a range, once beyond the range of skin tolerance, then too high or too low temperature will directly cause serious damage to the human body.At present, the limit temperature range that the human body can withstand in a dry and windless environment is about -100℃ to 104℃.But there are plenty of things in the world that are above that threshold, even the current limit that scientists can reach with technology is 4 trillion degrees Celsius.Today we’re going to talk about what 4 trillion degrees Celsius actually is, which is a little bit different than you might think.Some concepts in physics affect each other, such as time and space, temperature and speed.They may seem unrelated, but in fact they are inextricably linked.For example, the standard to judge the temperature of an object is to observe the speed of the molecules inside the object. The lowest temperature is when the molecules stop moving, and the highest temperature is when the speed of molecules is in the limit state.Start with low temperatures. Scientifically speaking, there is a limit to low temperatures, known as absolute zero.The temperature of absolute zero is -273.16℃, and as far as we know, nothing in the world can fall below this temperature, because all atoms and molecules stop moving in any way once they reach this temperature.In contrast to low temperatures, high temperatures have an amazing upper limit, and even so far, humans have not found what the maximum temperature limit is.Through the above mentioned physics: the relationship between speed and temperature, we can quickly find the absolute zero in the vacuum state at low temperature, but high temperature cannot be reached, because we cannot make molecules move as fast as the speed of light, so we cannot find the highest limit of temperature.At present known object temperature if there is no thermometer, so we can only set the human body temperature 36℃ as a reference, on this basis to measure the approximate temperature range of external objects.In general cognition, we have an intuitive feeling of the temperature range of some objects, for example: 23℃ is the best temperature to maintain vital signs, boiling point of water at conventional atmospheric pressure is 100℃, freezing point is 0℃ and so on.So once more than 0-100℃ range, the human body is best not to contact directly, we can through some phenomena, combined with the thermometer to understand the temperature range of the object.Also starting from low temperature, the lowest temperature object that human beings have discovered at present is liquid nitrogen. Under normal atmospheric pressure, the temperature of liquid nitrogen is less than -196℃.In addition to industrial applications, liquid nitrogen has also been used in biology, such as the controversial cryonics technique, in which a human body is placed in liquid nitrogen and the possibility that the organism can be thawed and resurrected through a cryogenic medium.But high temperatures are more complicated, because it’s much easier to look at things at high temperatures than at things at low temperatures, because a lot of things change after they reach a certain temperature.For example, the melting temperature of iron into molten iron is 1500℃, and the melting temperature of magnesium oxide in rock during volcanic eruption is 3000 ℃.For example, according to scientists’ calculations, the temperature of the earth’s core is 5000℃, the temperature of lightning is 30000℃, and the surface temperature of the sun can reach 1,500,000 ℃!Skip the tens of millions, and we get to the temperature range in the billions, which many people might think exists only in some cosmic phenomenon, but in fact, there have been hundreds of millions of temperatures here on Earth.For example, when an atomic bomb explodes, the reactor inside the bullet constantly fuses, and finally explodes under the high-speed motion of hydrogen and oxygen particles, and the temperature generated in this moment exceeds 100 million degrees.Temperatures in the tens of trillions are already pretty crazy, but don’t be surprised, because in addition to the super-high temperatures that exist in the universe, technology has enabled humans not only to create temperatures comparable to cosmic phenomena, but even in 2010,Scientists in the United States have again raised the limit for man-made temperatures to four trillion.It’s no secret that temperature is closely related to the speed at which molecules move inside an object.To explore the temperature limit, a group of scientists at brookhaven Laboratory in the United States accelerated two beams of gold ions at the speed of light.After reaching the speed limit, the scientists managed to collide two beams of gold ions that had been moving in different paths.In between, according to the temperature detection, at the moment of collision of two beams of gold ions, the internal temperature calculator of space actually got a value of 4 trillion temperature!The light and heat from the sun in the universe is enough to make us jaw-drop, and the 4 trillion temperature result from the experiment is a bit daunting.But don’t worry, because 4 trillion isn’t real on Earth, and brookhaven’s 4 trillion is just a theoretical result calculated using a series of thermometers.After all, at our current technological limits, we can’t create a vessel that can block 4 trillion temperatures.Postmortem temperature is of great significance for both natural operation and biological survival, because it is under the action of temperature that the big bang “born” everything happened in the universe, and also because of this explosion, the universe is constantly colorful.Just like the wonderful distance between the sun and the Earth, so that the sun after thousands of miles to bring the earth everything, the perfect temperature for survival.Driven by curiosity, human beings continue to explore the physical phenomena objectively existing in the universe, and then search for limits through these phenomena.Just like the exploration of the temperature limit, in fact, when the temperature exceeds 1000 degrees Celsius, the highest temperature is just a series of mechanical numbers, and the temperature higher than 4 trillion is a hot heart exploring the limit of the universe hidden behind that series of mechanical numbers.